Minggu, 10 April 2011

Sejarah Perkembangan Islam di Filipina

SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM DI PHILLIPINA










MAKALAH

Diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu tugas mata kuliah Sejarah Peradaban Islam

dari Prof. Dr. H. Jaih Mubarok, SE, M.Ag






Oleh :

AGUS SUBANDI

NIM. 2.210.9.024





UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI

SUNAN GUNUNG DJATI BANDUNG

PROGRAM PASCASARJANA KONSENTRASI PAI-K.A

2010

KATA PENGANTAR


Segala puja dan puji milik Allah. Shalawat dan salam semoga tercurah pada Nabi Muhammad saw. beserta keluarga, para sahabat dan pengikut-pengikutnya yang taat hingga akhir zaman.
Al-hamdulillah, atas karunia-Nya penulis dapat menyelesaikan Makalah Sejarah Peradaban Islam degan Judul “ SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM DI PHILLIPINA “ dari Prof.Dr.H. Jaih, SE, M.Ag

Penulis menyadari, bahwa dalam membuat Makalah, masih kurang sempurna atau tidak memenuhi tujuan yang diinginkan oleh Dosen Pembimbing atau pembaca lainnya.
Oleh karena itu, penulis mengharap kritik dan saran yang membangun, demi tugas-tugas berikutnya dan kesempurnaan didalam membuat Makalah.

Tak lupa, atas bimbingan dan bantuan dari semua fihak, hingga terselesaikannya tugas membuat Makalah , penulis ucapkan terima kasih. Semoga amal baiknya mendapat imbalan yang setimpal dari Allah SWT.

Akhirnya hanya kepada Allah, penulis serahkan segala upaya yang telah dilakukan dan tetap memohon petunjuk kejalan yang diridlai-Nya. Amin


Karawang, 7 Nopember 2010
Penulis,









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DAFTAR ISI

KATA PENGANTAR
DAFTAR ISI
BAB ISEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM DI PHILLIPINA
A. Islam di Asia Tenggara
B. Tokoh-tokoh pejuang Islam di Filipina
C. Wilayah Autonomi Islam Mindanao
BAB II ISLAM DI FILIPINA
A. Islam di Filipina
B. Etymologi
C. History
D. Politic and goverment
E. Security and defense
F. Administration devisions
G. Demograpics
H. Ethnicity
I. Religion
J. Kesepakatan Gencatan Senjata
DAFTAR PUSTAKA




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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM DI PHILLIPINA

A. Islam di Asia Tenggara
Sejak zaman pemerintahan Bani Umaiyah terkenal sebagai suatu era agresif, dimana perhatian tertumpu kepada usaha perluasan wilayah dan penaklukan, yang terhenti sejak zaman kedua Khulafaurrasyidin terakhir. Hanya dalam jangka waktu 90 tahun, banyak bangsa di empat penjuru mata angin beramai-ramai masuk kedalam kekuasaan Islam, yang meliputi tanah Spanyol, seluruh wilayah Afrika Utara, Jazirah Arab, Suriah, Palestina, separoh daerah Anatolia, Irak, Persia, Afghanistan, India dan negeri-negeri yang sekarang dinamakan Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan dan Kirgiztan yang termasuk Sovyet Rusia. (Ali Mufrodi, 1996, hlm. 80)
Mengenai tempat asal datangnya Islam di Asia Tenggara. sedikitnya ada tiga teori besar. Pertama, teori yang menyatakan bahwa Islam datang langsung dari Arab, atau tepatnya Hadramaut. Teori ini dikemukakan Crawfurd (1820), Keyzer (1859), Niemann (1861), De Hollander (1861), dan Veth (1878). Crawfurd menyatakan bahwa Islam datang langsung dari Arab, meskipun ia menyebut adanya hubungan dengan orang-orang Mohammaden di India Timur. Keyzer beranggapan bahwa Islam datang dari Mesir yang bermadzhab Syafe’i, sama seperti yang dianut kaum Muslimin Nusantara umumnya. Teori ini juga dipegang oleh Niemann dan de Hollander, tetapi dengan menyebut Hadramaut, bukan Mesir, sebagai sumber datangnya Islam, sebab Muslim Hadramaut adalah pengikut madzhab Syafe’i seperti juga kaum Muslimin Nusantara. (Azyumardi Azra, 1999, hlm. 31)
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Menurut Azyumardi Azra, bahwa kawasan asia tenggara terbagi menjadi tiga bagian berdasarkan atas pengaruh yang diterima wilayah tersebut.
Pertama, adalah wilayah Indianized Southeast Asia, Asia Tenggara yang dipengaruhi India yang dalam hal ini hindu dan budha
Kedua, Sinized South East Asia, wilayah yang mendapatkan pengaruh China, adalah Vietnam.
Ketiga, yatu wilayah Asia Tenggara yang dispanyolkan, atau Hispainized South East Asia, yaitu Philipina.
Ketiga pemmbagian tersebut seolah meniadakan pegnaruh Islam yang begitu besar di Asia Tenggara, khususnya Philipina. Seperti tertulis bahwa Philipina termasuk negara yang terpengaruhi oleh Spanyol. Hal itu benar adanya, akan tetapi pranata kehidupan di Philipina juga terpengaruhi oleh Islam pada masa penjajahan amerika dan spanyol. Sedikit makalah dibawah ini akan menyiingkap dengan siingkat tentang sejarah masuknya Islam di Philipina.
Menurut Jaih Mubarok dalam Sejarah Peradaban Islam mengatakan bahwa “ Pada abad XIV M, sisa-sisa kekuatan Sriwijaya ditumpas oleh Majapahit. Sejumlah Pangeran dan prajurit melarikan diri ke ber bagai wilayah Melayu. (Jaih Mubarok, 2004, halm. 229)
Islam yang berkembang di Sulu dan Philipina Utara dibawa oleh para pedagang dan da’I dari Malaka, sehingga Spanyol melaporkan bahwa sebelum terbentuk kesultanan Islam di Philipina, telah ada perkampungan muslim (1514 M). (A.S Harahap, 1951, hlm. 128).
Pada tahun 1511 M, pusat perdagangan Islam (Malaka) jatuh ke tangan Portugis. Anggota keluarga kerajaan melarikan diri ke berbagai daerah untuk mengungsi. (Jaih Mubarok, 2004, hlm. 230)
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Islam di Asia menurut Dr. Hamid mempunyai 3 bentuk penyebaran. Pertama, penyebaran Islam melahirkan mayoritas penduduk. Kedua, kelompok minoritas Islam. Ketiga, kelompok negera negara Islam tertindas.
Dalam bukunya yang berjudul Islam Sebagai Kekuatan International, Dr. Hamid mencantumkan bahwa Islam di Philipina merupakan salah satu kelompok ninoritas diantara negara negara yang lain. Dari statsitk demografi pada tahun 1977Masyarakat Philipina berjumlah 44. 300.000 jiwa. Sedangkan jumlah masyarakat Muslim 2.348.000 jiwa. Dengan prosentase 5,3% dengan unsur dominan komunitas Mindanao dan mogondinao. (Wikipedia, Islam di Filipina, 2010)
Pada tahun 1565 M, Spanyol menaklukkan Phillipina dan pendudukannya diubah menjadi penganut Katholik. Dalam melakukan perluasan di Phillipina, Spanyol mendapat perlawanan dari tiga kesultanan Islam : Sulu, Manguindanao, dan Bayan. Sejak itu, Islam tidak berkembang kecuali di kepulauan Sulu dan Mindanao sebelah barat. (Jaih Mubarok, 2004, hlm. 230)
Dengan perjanjian Paris 1898 M, Spanyol menyerahkan Phillipina kepada Amerika Serikat. Amerika Serikat membiarkan hokum adapt Moro dan Islam selama tidak bertentangan dengan Konstitusi Amerika Serikat. Ketika orang-orang Phillipina mulai dilatih untuk mempersiapkan pemerintahan yang independent, para Sultan, Datuk, dan pemuka agama mengajukan petisi kepada Amerika Serikat, agar tidak menyertakan wilayah mereka dalam satu negera yang akan dimemerdekakan. Akan tetapi, petisi itu diabaikan, sehingga wilayah-wilayah mereka menjadi bagian dari Filipina yang merdeka dari Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1946. (Jaih Mubarok, 2004, hlm. 230)
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Periode berikuutnya tercatat pertempuran antara kedua belah pihak. Teofisto Guiingona, Sr. mencatat antara tahun 1914-1920 rata-rata terjadi 19 kali pertempuran. Tahun 1921-1923, terjadi 21 kali pertempuran. Patut dicatat bahwa selama periode 1898-1902, AS ternyata telah menggunakan waktu tersebut untuk membebaskan tanah serta hutan di wilayah Moro untuk keperluan ekspansi para kapitalis. Bahkan periode 1903-1913 dihabiskan AS untuk memerangi berbagai kelompok perlawanan Bangsa Moro. Namun Amerika memandang peperangan tak cukuup efektif mereddam perlawanan Bangsa Moro, Amerika akhirnya menerapkan strategi penjajahan melalui kebijakan pendidikan dan bujukan. (Wikipedia, Islam di Phillipina, 2010)

B. Tokoh-tokoh pejuang Islam di Phillipina
1. Prof.Dr.H. Nur Misuari
Nur Misuari atau Nurallaj Misuari merupakan pengasas Pergerakan Pembebasan Mindanao yang merupakan kumpulan anti kerajaan Filipinasecara kekerasan. Nur Misuari dipenjara atas tuduhan melakukan pemberontakan pada 2006. Nur Misuari ditahan di Pulau Jampiras, Sabah 24 November 2001 kerana memasuki Malaysia tanpa dokumen perjalanan sah. Kerajaan Filipina mendesak Malaysia menyerahkan Nur Misuari tetapi Malaysia terus melindungi Nur Misuari. Nur Misuari pernah berlindung di Libya awal tahun 1980-an.
Nur Misuari merupakan Bekas Gabenor Wilayah Autonomi Islam Mindanao (ARMM) . Beliau berusia 65 tahun dan menjadi buruan Manilakerana mengetuai pemberontakan 19 November 2001 sebelum melarikan diri.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nur Misuari


Date of birth: 1942
Place of birth: Jolo, Sulu, Philippines

Major organizations: Moro National Liberation Front


Nur Misuari (born 1942 in Jolo, Sulu in the Philippines) is a Filipino politician and former leader of the Moro National Liberation Front. He completed his education through academic scholarships in the University of the Philippines and became a student activist. Misuari was a lecturer at the University of the Philippines in political science and in the 1960s, he established the Mindanao Independence Movement which aimed to organized an independent Islamic state in the southern Philippines. The Mindanao Independence Movement formed the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). which sought political reforms from the Government of the Philippines. Unable to gained reforms, the MNLF
engaged in military conflict against the Philippine government and its supporters between 1972 to 1976 under the leadership of Misuari. The military resistance to the government of former Philippine
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president Ferdinand Marcos did not produce autonomy for the Moro people. He departed to Saudi Arabia in exile but returned to the Philippines after Marcos was removed from office during the People Power Revolution in 1986.
Misuari justified the MNLF armed struggle on the non-implementation of the Tripoli Agreement, originally signed by Ferdinand Marcos and later included and accepted in the peace agreement signed by former Philippine president Fidel Ramos in the 1990s. This agreement established an autonomous region for Moros with Misuari as governor. He was removed from his office when Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo became president in 2001 and was arrested in 2007 on charges of terrorism. On December 20, 2007 he was denied a petition for bail and remained under house arrest in Manila. The Philippine court however, granted the bail petition of Misuari's seven co-accused, at 100,000 pesos.[1] On April 2, 2008, former rebel leader, Muslimin Sema and mayor of Cotabato City replaced Misuari, as the leader of the MNLF[2] On April 25, 2008, he was allowed to post bail, upon the instructions of the Cabinet security cluster.[3](César A. Majul, "The Contemporary Muslim Movement in the Philippines" (Berkeley: Mizan Press, 1985).
Setelah deklarasi Undang-undang keadaan perang, maka MNLF (Front Pembebasan Nasional Moro) menjadi organisasi yang menonjol. Dan setelah pembunuhan besar-besaran Jabidah, kaum intelektual termasuk para mahasiswanya sepakat bahwa masyarakat Islam di negara itu akan terpelihara dengan baik sekali jika siap dilindungi oleh angkatan bersenjata yang kuat. (Cesar A. Majul, 1989, hlm. 64)
Tokoh-tokoh MNLF, Nur Misuari lulusan Universitas Filipina jurusan Ilmu Politik dan kemudian menjabat sebagai lektor, selajutnya menjadi anggota staf Pusat Asia di Universitas tersebut. Ia dari keluarga rakyat
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biasa dari Sulu. Pemimpin yang lain yaitu Hashim Salamat dari Cotabato, berasal dari keluarga Maguindanao yang berpengaruh, dan telah belajar di lembaga-lembaga Arab dan Islam di Kairo, Mesir. Kemudian pemimpin MNLF yang lain yaitu Abdul Khair Alonto, seorang mahasiswa dan keturunan sultan-sultan di Lanao. Dengan demikian MNLF telah mewakili semua etnolinguistik dan kelompok-kelompok daerah. (Cesar A. Majul, 1989, hlm. 65).

2. Abu Sayaf
Kelompok Abu Sayyaf, juga dikenal sebagai Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, adalah sebuah kelompok separatis yang terdiri dari terorisMuslim[rujukan?] yang berbasis di sekitar kepulauan selatan Filipina, antara lain Jolo, Basilan, dan Mindanao. Khadaffi Janjalani dinamakan sebagai pemimpin kelompok ini oleh Angkatan Bersenjata Filipina. Dilaporkan bahwa akhir-akhir ini mereka sedang memperluaskan jaringannya ke Malaysia dan Indonesia. Kelompok ini bertanggung jawab terhadap aksi-aksi pemboman, pembunuhan, penculikan, dan pemerasan dalam upaya mendirikan negara Muslim di sebelah barat Mindanao dan Kepulauan Sulu serta menciptakan suasana yang kondusif bagi terciptanya negara besar yang Pan-Islami di Semenanjung Melayu(Indonesia dan Malaysia) di Asia Tenggara. Nama kelompok ini adalah bahasa Arab untuk Pemegang (Abu) Pedang (Sayyaf). Abu Sayyaf adalah salah satu kelompok separatis terkecil dan kemungkinan paling berbahaya[rujukan?] di Mindanao. Beberapa anggotanya pernah belajar atau bekerja di Arab Saudi dan mengembangkan hubungan dengan mujahidin ketika bertempur dan berlatih di Afganistan dan Pakistan. (Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipines, 2010)
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C. Wilayah Autonomi Islam Mindanao
Ibu kota Cotabato dengan Gabernor Zaldy Ampatuan
Jumlah penduduk 2.803.805 – Kepadatan 220,9/km 2, keluasan 12.695,0 km 2 . Bahasa Maguindanao, Maranao, Tausug, Yakan, Sama,
Wilayah Autonomi Islam Mindanao ialah sebuah wilayah di Filipina yang terdiri daripada provinsi-provinsi Islam di negara itu, iaitu: Basilan, Lanao
del Sur, Maguindanao, Shariff Kabunsuan, Sulu dan Tawi-Tawi, dan juga sebuah bandar yang didiami oleh majoriti penduduk Islam, Marawi. Wilayah autonomi ini merupakan satu-satunya kawasan di Filipina yang memiliki kerajaan sendiri. Ibu kota wilayah ini ialah Cotabato.
Wilayah ini terbahagi kepada dua kawasan geografi - tanah besar Mindanao dan Kepulauan Sulu. Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao dan Shariff Kabunsuan terletak di tanah besar Mindanao, sementara Basilan, Sulu dan Tawi-Tawi di Kepulauan Sulu. (Laman ini diubah buat kali terakhir pada 20:39, 5 Mac 2010 Wikipedia)











BAB II
ISLAM DI PHILLIPINA
A. Islam di Phillipina
Asia is home to the largest Muslim population, with the (Eastern) Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia being particularly important regions. 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India having the four largest Muslim populations in the world. The spread of Islam outside of the Arabian peninsula and into other parts of the continent can be linked to the extensive trade routes connecting the Middle East to China. Arab Muslim traders exported their religion along with their goods. More importantly, however, was the massive conquest of non-Muslim lands by Muslim empires, which, during the Golden Age of Islam were technologically and militarily superior to many other Asian civilizations. Islam's mysticism, ritual and social justice message resonated with many of the conquered peoples, the legacy of this history is that a vast majority of Muslims do not live in the Middle East or are ethnically Arab.
The Iranian Revolution is one of the most important events in modern Islam, a phenomenon that widely influenced the practice, politics and society of Muslims across the world, including the Arab world. It also represents a growing power of the non Arab forces in the direction of Islam.[clarification needed] In the People's Republic of China, India, Eastern Russia, Thailand, the Philippines and some other non Muslim Asian countries, tensions between Muslim minorities (Xighurs in China, Moro people in the Philippines, Chechens in Russia, Kashmiris in India) and the government have erupted in unrest and terrorism. In many of these
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cases, non Muslim majority Asian countries find themselves in a difficult position between the West and Muslim world. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2010)
The Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the southwest lies between the country and the island ofBorneo, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and its tropical climate make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons
but have also endowed the country with natural resources and made it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city isManila. (Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipina, 2010)
With an estimated population of about 92 million people, the Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country. An additional 11 million Filipinos live overseas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic cultures. Trade introduced Chinese cultural influences.
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The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual dominance. Manila emerged as the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleonfleet. Missionary work led to widespread Christianity. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the short-lived Philippine Revolution, the Spanish-American War, and the Philippine-American War. In the aftermath, the United States replaced Spain as the dominant power. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until the end of World War II when the Philippines gainedindependence. The United States bequeathed to the Philippines the English language and a stronger affinity for Western culture. Since independence the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular "People Power" movements
overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of itsconstitutional republic in others. (Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipine, 2010)
B. Etymology
The name Philippines is derived from that of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinasafter the then Prince of Asturias (Spain). Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before it became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázarowere also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.[10]
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The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country's history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. During the American period the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. The official name of the country is now Republic of the Philippines. The name "Philippines" is ultimately derived from the Greek phrase Φίλος Ίππος Νησιά Fílos Íppos Ni̱sí meaning "Islands of the Horse Friend."[original research?] (Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipina, 2010)
C. History
The earliest known human remains found in the Philippines are those of the pre-MongoloidTabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago. Negritos were another group of early inhabitants but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. They were followed by speakers of Malayo-Polynesian languages who began to arrive beginning around 4000 BCE, displacing the earlier arrivals. By 1000 BCE, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, petty plutocracies, and maritime-centered harbor principalities.


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The maritime-oriented peoples traded with other Asian countries during the subsequent period bringing influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. There was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine Archipelago. Instead, the islands were divided among competing thalassocracies ruled by various datus, rajahs, or sultans. Among these were the kingdoms of Maynila, Namayan, and Tondo, the rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu, and the sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu.[21][22][23][24] Some of these societies were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Brunei.[25][26] Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia.[27] By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and by 1565 had reached Mindanao, the Visayas, andLuzon.[28]
A page from the Boxer Codex. Left, is a general from theRajahnate of Butuan and to the right is a princess of Tondo. (Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipina, 2010)
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain.[29] Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong, the Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.
Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence.
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The Manila galleons linking Manila to Acapulcotraveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th century. Trade introduced foods such as corn,tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, and pineapples from the Americas.[31] Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, a university, and hospitals. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863, efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period.
During its rule, the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War, British forces under the command of Brigadier General William Draper and Rear-Admiral Samuel Cornish briefly occupied the Philippines. They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt against the Mexican-born acting Governor-General and Archbishop of Manila Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra, but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
José Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce: leaders of the Propaganda Movement
In the 1800s, Philippine ports were opened to world trade and shifts were occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula(peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began
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to spread through the islands. Criollodissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized byMarcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. As attempts at reform were meeting with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, a society along the lines of the freemasons, which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 and the First Philippine Republic was established the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for US$20 million dollars in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine-American War broke out. It ended with American control over the islands. (Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipina, 2010)

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D. Politics and government
The Philippines is a constitutional republic with a presidential system of government. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over thecabinet.[2]
The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term. The senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[2]
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[2]
There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.



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E. Security and defense
PNP-Special Action Force(SAF) operators
Philippine defense is handled by the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is composed of three branches: the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy (including the Marine Corps). Civilian security is handled by Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).
In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist New People's Army, and the Abu Sayyafstill roam the provinces, but their presence has decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.
The Philippines has been an ally of the United States since World War II. It supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO, a group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO and that included Australia, France, New Zealand,Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. After the start of the War on Terror, the Philippines was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States in Iraq. The Philippines is currently working with the United States with the intention of ending its domestic insurgency.

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F. Administrative divisions
The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. As of March 2010, these were divided into 17 regions, 80 provinces, 138 cities, 1,496 municipalities, and 42,025 barangays. In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the country has acquired islands from Sabah (formerly North Borneo).


Provinces and regions of the Philippines
Region Designation Regional center
Ilocos Region
Region I San Fernando, La Union

Cagayan Valley
Region II Tuguegarao, Cagayan

Central Luzon
Region III San Fernando, Pampanga

CALABARZON
Region IV-A Calamba, Laguna

MIMAROPA
Region IV-B Calapan, Oriental Mindoro

Bicol Region
Region V Legazpi, Albay

Western Visayas
Region VI Iloilo City

Central Visayas
Region VII Cebu City

Eastern Visayas
Region VIII Tacloban

Zamboanga Peninsula
Region IX Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur

Northern Mindanao
Region X Cagayan de Oro

Davao Region
Region XI Davao City

SOCCSKSARGEN
Region XII Koronadal, South Cotabato

Caraga
Region XIII Butuan

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
ARMM Cotabato City

Cordillera Administrative Region
CAR Baguio

National Capital Region
NCR Manila


G. Demographics
The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685. By 2009, the Philippines has become the world's 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 92 million.[7] It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. Manila, the capital city, is the eleventh most populous metropolitan area in the world. The population of the Greater Manila Area is around 20 million.
The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 was 3.21% but has decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period.[6] The median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% of the population aged from 15 to 64 years old.[4] Life expectancy at birth is 71.38 years, 74.45 years for females and 68.45 years for males.
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There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines. Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 3.1 million. According to the United States Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification. Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East, with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone.
H. Ethnicity
According to the 2000 census 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon Ilonggo, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% are classified as other.[4] These general headings can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan. There are alsoindigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan. Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.
Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of theAustronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It's believed that thousands of years agoTaiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, and displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands.

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Eventually Chinese, Spanish, and American arrivals intermarried with the various indigenous ethnic groups that had evolved. Their descendants are known as mestizos. Chinese Filipinos number about two million. Other migrant ethnic groups who have settled in the country from elsewhere include Arabs, Britons, other Europeans, Indonesians, Japanese, Koreans, and South Asians.
J. Religion
More than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while 10% belong to other Christian denominations, such as the Philippine Independent Church, Iglesia ni Cristo, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Seventh-day Adventist Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Orthodox Church. The Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor. Between 5% and 10% of the population are Muslim, most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago—an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Shafi'i, a form of Sunni Islam. Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by many aboriginal and tribal groups, often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism,folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, through the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion, are dominant in Chinese communities. There are also followers of Baha'i. ( Wikipedia, Islam in Phillipina, 2010)
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K. Pemerintah Philipina dan Kelompok Islam Moro Sepakati
Gencatan Senjata 07-08-2001
Selasa, 07 Agustus 2001
Pemerintah Philipina dan kelompok separatis Muslim kedua terbesar disana, telah menandatangani sebuah perjanjian gencatan senjata. Langkah ini merupakan kemajuan besar dalam rangka mengakhiri pembrontakan yang sudah berlangsung 30 tahun di pulau Mindanao Selatan.
Upacara penanda tanganan perjanjian ini berlangsung di Malaysia hari ini, dimana pembicaraan perdamaian antara kedua belah fihak, Manila dan Front Pembebasan Islam Moro, telah berlangsung selama ini.
Dokumen-dokumen yang sudah ditandatangani itu kemudian diserahkan pada Presiden Filipina, Gloria Arroyo, yang berada di Malaysia dalam rangka kunjungan luar negeri nya yang pertama sejak menduduki jabatan Presiden.
Dengan dihasilkannya persetujuan gencatan senjata ini maka Abu Sayyaf merupakan satu-satunya kelompok Muslim yang masih melanjutkan perjuangan bagi pembentukan sebuah negara Islam di Philipina Selatan.
"Gerakan dakwah Islam bukan sekedar disampaikan tanpa di evaluasi. Dakwah Islam mesti progresif dan memihak pada kemanusiaan. Sangat disayangkan, akhir akhir ini banyak para ulama yang terjebak pada kepentingan politik pragmatis semata. Berdakwah atas nama Islam tapi kepentingan mereka ternyata pada kekuasaan.”(Wikipedia, Artikel Islam di Phillipina, 2010)

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Tarmizi Taher mengatakan bahwa :
Salah satu dimensi dakwah Islam yang sering terlupakan adalah mengembangkan pemahaman keagamaan moderat bagi masyarakat. Sekarang ini, umat Islam telah berjumlah lebih dari 1 miliar, yang diharapkan akan terus meningkat. Setelajh pertemuan ulama di Malaysia, pada bulan Mei 2004 yang lalu, NU dan Muhammadiyah diundang masyarakat Muslim Philipina dalam acara Islamic Conference Philipina. Konferensi itu berkaitan dengan upaya untuk mengembangkan dakwah Islam yang moderat.
Acara yang diselenggarakan oleh Dewan Islam Philipina itu meminta para delegasi NU-Muhammadiyah untuk menguraikan sejarah dan aktifitas NU-Muhammadiyah. Kedua ormas Islam itu sangat dihargai oleh kaum Muslim Philipina. Penulis memberikan penjelasan mengenai moderatisme kepada tokoh-tokoh Islam dan non-Islam di Philipina. Ketua delegasi Muslim Philipina Prof. Thaha Basman yang juga menjabat sebagai Direktur UNESCO Philipina, menilai bahwa gerakan dakwah Islam yang dipromosikan Center For Moderat Muslim (CMM) cocok bagi gerakan ulama dan intelektual di Philipina. Konferensi di Philipina itu kelanjutan dari Konferensi Islam di Jakarta (13-15/10/03). Konferensi di Philipina itu juga dihadiri Grand Mufti Philipina Syeikh Sa’adudin Awliya, Ketua Tabligh Muslim Philipina Dr. Faisal Abdullah, serta pejabat-pejabat Philipina. Dan sekarang, Center For Moderat Muslim (CMM) di Philipina telah terbentuk. Pada konferensi Islam di Philipina tersebut disponsori Mindanao Research Institute, Majelis Ulama Philipina, dan Universitas Mindanao. (Dr.dr.H.Tarmidzi Taher, Artikel, 2010)
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
1. ^ "Republic Act No. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2007-12-05. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k General Information. (2007). The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2007-10-22.
3. ^ a b 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7. Retrieved 2009-11-21 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Central Intelligence Agency. (2009-10-28). "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
5. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
6. ^ a b Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (2008). "Official population count reveals...". Author. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
7. ^ a b c d e f g International Monetary Fund. (April 2010). World Economic Outlook Data, By Country – Philippines: [selected annual data for 1980–2015]. Retrieved 2010-05-29 from World Economic Outlook Database.
8. ^ a b c United Nations Development Programme. (2009). "Table G: Human development and index trends, Table I: Human and income poverty".Human Development Report 2009 - Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development (Palgrave MacMillan). ISBN 978-0-230-23904-3.
9. ^ Lucas, Brian. (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved 2009-02-22.
10. ^ Scott, William Henry. (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 6.ISBN 9715501354. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
11. Jaih Mubarok, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, Penerbit Pustaka Bani Quraisy, Bandung, 2004.
12. Dedi Supriyadi, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, Penerbit Pustaka Setia, Bandung, 2008.
13. Cesar A. Majul, Dinamika Islam Filipina, LP3ES, 1989.
14. Azyumardi Azra, Renaisans Islam Asia Tenggara, Penerbit Rosdakarya Remaja, Bandung, 1999.
15. Ali Mufrodi, Islam di Kawasan Kebudayaan Arab, Penerbit Logis Wacana Ilmu, Jakarta, 1997.
16. Soekama Karya dkk, Ensliklopedi Mini Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Islam, Penerbit Logos Wacana Ilmu, Jakarta, 1996.

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